In the coming years, advancing urbanization in major cities and the simultaneous peripherization in rural regions will present many challenges to cities and municipalities. These include, inter alia, maintaining an adequate mobility services in rural areas or on the fringes of large cities, while also minimizing negative environmental impacts of the transport sector. Autonomous driving promises the creation of on-demand services through lower personnel costs and continuous operation of vehicles. This can create additional mobility options for people who are not able to drive themselves. Digitization allows the introduction of connected and smart mobility solutions that are aligned to both efficiency (e.g. optimization of routes) and the needs of customers (e.g., pick-up at specific locations/times). With the progress of automation technology, the start of production of corresponding vehicles, and the advancement of infrastructure, numerous new applications and business models as well as legal and political issues are emerging.
The project HEAT (Hamburg Electric Autonomous Transportation) will create visibility for autonomous driving with emission-free shuttle buses in a first test area in Hamburg’s HafenCity. The aim is to prove that a fully automated or autonomous vehicle system (SAE level 5, i.e. without driver) can be integrated into regular road traffic. The goal is to develop, test and deploy electric autonomous vehicles and systems.
Right now, the legal framework is a major obstacle for this endeavor. IKEM will accompany the implementation of the project and will work on the development of a suitable legislation for driverless vehicles. IKEM also takes the lead in work package 2 and will develop operator and business models based based on this new mobility offer.
Further partners in the project consortium are the City of Hamburg (Behörde für Wirtschaft, Verkehr und Innovation – BWVI), Hamburger Hochbahn AG (HOCHBAHN), Siemens AG, Ingenieurgesellschaft Auto und Verkehr (IAV) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR).
A project period of four years is funded by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
Sohjoa Baltic researches, promotes and pilots automated driverless electric minibuses as part of the public transport chain especially for first/last mile connectivity. The project brings knowledge and competence on organizing environmentally friendly and smart automated public transport . It also provides guidelines on legal and organizational setup needed for running such a service in an efficient way. Sohjoa Baltic aims to bring autonomous small buses to drive demo routes in six Baltic Sea Region cities.
The Sohjoa Baltic Consortium has partners from Finland, Estonia, Sweden, Latvia, Germany, Poland, Norway and Denmark with area and public transportation planning expertise as well as legal expertise combined with strong technical understanding which are the requirements for enabling autonomous traffic. The total budget of Sohjoa Baltic (2017-2020) is 3,8 million euro of which the Interreg BSR program co-finances 2,8 million euro.
IKEM examines the political and legal framework in Germany as well as its European context. Based on these findings, the institute will create an analysis system with which the legal and political situation of the respective partner countries will be reviewed. The compiled results will be used to develop a roadmap for the introduction of automatic vehicles in public transport that complies with legal prerequisites.
In OTS 1.0, IKEM is responsible for investigating the political and legal framework as well as for the development of business and operating models. One particular task is the development of a legal implementation strategy. This will also lead to the preparation of recommendations for changes within the legal framework necessary for the better integration of increasingly automated electric vehicles into urban traffic areas, the construction and operation of the required traffic-related infrastructure and the strengthening of public transport. In the first phase of the project, the identification of the legal and political hurdles for the establishment and implementation of the testing operation is of paramount importance. The suitability of operators and business models should also be ensured at an early stage by incorporating relevant actors.
An important part of the project “Interregional Automated Transport – I-AT” in Interreg A is the (further) development of technical innovations and solutions for the automotive and logistics sector, especially in the areas of automation, information and communication technology, artificial intelligence, measurement and sensor technology. The testing of prototypes in the German-Dutch border region will enable important progress in autonomous driving. The test operation with autonomous vehicles (WEPods) is to take place at Weeze airport (car park shuttle), in a cross-border transport corridor (for example Aachen-Vaals) as well as between Ede and Wageningen. In the project, research institutions, large enterprises, SMEs and public institutions from the region are working closely together to promote knowledge transfer and product innovations in the German-Dutch border area and to strengthen the regional economy.
In this project, the IKEM is responsible for investigating the economic and political framework for various areas of autonomous vehicles. These include (cross-border) passenger transport, city logistics for parcel services and the operation of platooning trucks on public roads. Based on the knowledge gained from the testing phase and the exchange with stakeholders, IKEM intends to gain insights into the interests of political decision-makers and other relevant actors involved with autonomous driving. Additional research, e.g. regarding logistics, will serve to develop recommendations for (political) action and concrete business models. In addition, the IKEM, in cooperation with the law firm Becker Büttner Held, is involved in the analysis and presentation of the legal framework for autonomous driving.
Tödlicher Unfall mit autonomem Fahrzeug in den USA Technical Report
IKEM: Stellungnahme, 2018.
Autonomes Fahren und das Projekt HEAT Miscellaneous
Redaktionell überarbeitetes und gekürztes Experteninterview mit Lennart Losekamm, 2018.
Bericht zum Workshop "Zulassung von fahrerlosen Fahrzeugen" Proceeding
Wahlprogramme zur Bundestagswahl 2017 – Autonomes Fahren, Mobilität und Automobilindustrie Technical Report
IKEM: Analyse im Rahmen der Projekte I-AT und OTS 1.0, 2017.
Ein Etikettenschwindel bremst das automatisierte Fahren aus Online
Analyse für Golem.de: 2017.
Stellungnahme zur Einrichtung einer Ethik-Kommission zum automatisierten Fahren Technical Report
IKEM: Stellungnahme, 2016.
Tödlicher Tesla-Unfall: Irrtümer und Rechtsfolgen Technical Report
IKEM: Stellungnahme, 2016.
Rechtsfragen des hochautomatisierten Fahrens – ein Überblick (Teil 1) Journal Article
IR, 2/2016 , pp. 32 ff., 2016.
Rechtsfragen des hochautomatisierten Fahrens – ein Überblick (Teil 2) Journal Article
IR, 3/2016 , pp. 53 ff., 2016.
Vernetzte Mobilität der Zukunft erfahrbar machen – Die Rolle von Reallaboren für einen etwas anderen Ansatz des automatisierten Fahrens Journal Article
Internationales Verkehrswesen, 1/2016 , pp. 59 ff., 2016.
Hochautomatisiertes Fahren auf Autobahnen – Industriepolitische Schlussfolgerungen Technical Report
Fraunhofer IAO, Fraunhofer Fokus, IKEM, mm1: Studie im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWi) 2015.